Category Archives: Serious Games and Gamification

Posts on serious games and gamification

What learning professionals can learn from video games

Introduction

Video games are a huge global market, bigger than movies and music. somewhere north of $60 billlion a year, and growing, between console, PC, and mobile. In comparison, estimated global box office revenue for 2014 was about $38 billion.

Adults, particularly older ones that didn’t grow up playing games, tend to be somewhat dismissive of the merit and value of gaming. It’s a toy for their kids, a distraction rather than something to take too seriously.

But today, electronic games are also a serious pastime for working adults as well, and for men and women. As well, modern gaming systems are basically sophisticated computers for the living room that handle a range of different forms of entertainment – TV, music, movies, gaming, apps, web browsing.

Some interesting stats:

  • The average age is 31
  • The gaming population is roughly split between men and women, 52% vs 48%.
  • The average US household has at least one gaming console

Source: http://venturebeat.com/2014/04/29/gaming-advocacy-group-the-average-gamer-is-31-and-most-play-on-a-console/ 

So the question becomes, what do video games have to offer us, as learning professionals, beyond fun and entertainment?

Video games have lessons to teach us, as learning professionals in a few key ways.

The Lessons of video games

1. First, they show how to make complex, realistic tasks fun. People play games because they’re fun. There’s struggle and effort and challenge and obstacles to overcome, and often a lot of seriousness, but in the end it’s fun.

2. Second, video games are distinctly successful at attracting and holding people’s attention. People engage and stay engaged for sustained periods. Modern games can take upwards of 100 hours to complete. This is comparable, order of magnitude, to the time investment for a professional pilot to earn a type rating to fly a new type of aircraft.

These games will often involve intricate levels of goals and objectives and sub-goals and side goals. But people are drawn to persist and complete them. Games play effectively with different motivational and reward pathways to produce a compelling need to persist at the task despite challenges and difficulties and sometimes because of these challenges and difficulties.

These are some the same sorts of problems we face as designers and developers of learning materials. How to motivate people to engage in our content, and how to keep them engaged through to the end of the course. The success of games in this regard and the ways games achieve this success should be a motivator for us. We should look at the tricks games use to keep us interested and try to apply the lessons to our learning materials.

3. Third, video games are at the forefront of interactivity. If we want to see the state of the art of near / present term feasible interactions, we need to keep up with games. This is where the innovation is happening. Have you seen modern game controllers used with gaming consoles?

It looks like you could use it to put something in space. So many different buttons and directional controllers, and all in one neat, ergonomic package that fits perfectly in your hand.

Off-brand Xbox 360 controllers (similar to the one shown on the left) are used to fly military drones. Playstation controllers (the one shown on the right) are similar in design.

Microsoft’s Kinect sensor, meanwhile, used for the Xbox, is arguably the most innovative consumer market man-machine interface out there, using multiple cameras and microphones to detect body position and orientation and take speech inputs. It basically lets you, given effective software, control a computer using your voice and the movements of your body.

And then of course there are some of the novel forms of interaction used for tablet and phone games. Touch is one example, with controls based on tapping, swiping, and pinching. The other is controls based on the accelerometer and gyroscope, where games are controlled by moving, shaking, turning, or tilting the device. Some good examples are the Sky Map app on Android and Super Monkey Ball 2 and the Labyrinth 2 on iOS.

Finally, up and coming gaming tech such as the Oculus VR look to take gaming to a new level of immersiveness.

The common denominator here is that effective and meaningful use (not just as a gimmick) of sophisticated interactivity helps to pull the user in and increase engagement.

In comparison, the built in types of interactions we see enabled in eLearning authoring tools like Storyline and Captivate tend to be very simplistic – multiple choice, drag and drop, matching. Video games can motivate and inspire us by showing what is really possible today in interactivity.

 Conclusion

Video games, far from being something only for kids, have become a serious entertainment industry enjoyed by people of a wide variety of ages. They are an established part of our modern lives. Learning professionals looking for ideas on new and better ways to engage and motivate learners should take a serious look at the best practices of modern video games.

And hey – you might even have some fun doing it.

The television as a learning and training space

Introduction

Recent years have seen the world of training embracing  learning on mobile devices, or mlearning, for short. There are many reasons for this:

  1. Client demand as people more and more browse the internet principally through mobile devices
  2. Clients always having their phones with them, allowing lots of little moments during a day when learning could potentially take place.
  3. Phones having lots of sensors and input methods, allowing for innovative interactions
  4. Phones allowing multiple communciation methods

Designers and developers have been working on designs using mobile learning. At its most basic this has taken the form of  using file formats so that videos or presentations will play on a tablet, or even just an iPad. Or to make the training as an iPad app or playable within some container app.

Others, approaching the matter with some semblance of actual seriousness, have gotten more creative, and tailored training more to the unique affordances of smart phones and tablets. They make learning games that use sensors or activities that use sensors as inputs for motion or touch based interactions. Or they use location information. Others use ideas of informal learning and performance support to break training into small, focused little pieces that can be accessed in a spare moment.

eLearning authoring tool providers advertise their tools as enabling responsive eLearning. They hype the promise of being able to publish content to multiple media and device types, for desktop, tablet, and mobile.

This is good for learning and training. However, in this focus on mobile, we may be losing sight of possibly the next key development of web-based learning and training – the television as a learning and training space.

Television as a new window to Internet content and learning

Sitting on a couch with a tablet is a nice way to watch  a video or presentation. The device is light and comfortable. But, still, it’s a 10 inch screen. It is nice for portability, but it’s still a small screen. The small size is a compromise, trading visibility and real estate for portability.

But across from the couch is what? The TV. Big screen – 30, 40, 50, 60 inches. 1080p HD, easy to see, nice to watch, decent speakers. And you don’t have to hold anything.

Television used to be a box on which we watched traditional television programs, whether delivered over the air, or through cable or satellite broadcast. Then, came VHS players, DVD, Blu-ray, video game consoles. The living room TV became instead the screen in the middle of a home entertainment center.

Now, increasingly, televisions are also becoming just another one of the screens,albeit, much bigger ones, through which to access internet content, whether for entertainment, work, or learning. This takes the form of video, audio, text, and apps. The long promised fusing of internet and television has arrived, with several different options available to make this possible.

Many TVs are now “smart TVs,” combining a TV with a computer. These TVs are WiFi enabled, with built in interfaces and platforms with apps capability. Apps allow straightforward connectivity to content sources like Youtube, Netflix, digital music streaming services, and other streaming media.

Modern TV screens also allow for stereoscopic 3D. While no longer a faddish selling point, most newer TVs are by market standard capable of displaying stereoscopic 3D content, whether accessed over the web or on 3D Blu-rays. TVs stand out notably from the other screens through which we consume content in that many of them today readily allow Stereoscopic 3D media. TVs are the one dependable 3D screen that people commonly own.

TVs are also capable of being connected to gaming systems like PS4 and Xbox One, the second of which includes the Xbox Kinect motion and voice sensor. These systems, while meant primarily for gaming, are also intended more generally for home entertainment, with app platforms and apps like Netflix and Youtube to see internet video content.

As well, set top boxes like Apple TV as well as many WiFi enabled Blu-ray players offer a similar bridge between the television and the internet.

Tablets, phones, and laptops can share screens wirelessly to TVs, either through devices like Apple TV, game systems, or via Miracast / WiDi from enabled devices.

It is easy to get content on the TV. As well, the TV will either be setup with sensors, whether in the TV itself or via something like an Xbox, or the person will be screen sharing from something which has sensors and a touch based control interface. It becomes easier to browse, select, and interact with online content shown on the TV.

Designers, both web designers an instructional designers,  need to think about training and learning possibilities in this space.  just as they should be thinking about that OTHER class of displays that will also be more and more in people’s lives – wearables and augmented/virtual reality tech such as Google Glass and Oculus Rift. (More on this in a future post)

Challenges

There are a few challenges in this area:

Platforms

One main challenge is that there are so many different sorts of configurations and ways to connect the internet to the TV:

  • Via game consoles such as XBox One or Sony PS4
  • Smart TVs
  • Set top boxes like Apple TV, Wifi Blu-ray player, or Chromecast
  • Computer connected to the TV to share the screen via HDMI cable
  • Wireless screencast from laptop, tablet, or smartphone to the TV, whether through Apple Airplay or up and coming wireless screencasting standards WiDi (wireless direct) and Miracast.

This makes things difficult for developers, as there is no one clear dominant target for development.

The gaming consoles, which have positioned themselves as not only gaming platforms, but home entertainment hubs, may be one promising avenue, as the multi-billion dollar gaming industry already attracts lots of skilled developers to these platforms. Microsoft’s XBox One in particular runs an operating system related to Windows and uses the same development toolkit. Also, these gaming consoles offer innovative ways to interact with the content on the TV through different types of controller devices. These include body movement and voice based controls. The gaming console option offers interesting possibilities in terms of innovative learning interactions.

A more straightforward, elegant solution may be through smart TVs, where everything is in one box. This would especially be the case if in the future the telvision included sensors that could be turned on for Kinect-like interaction with cameras and microphones. One challenge, however, is attracting developers to different platforms from different manufacturers. Possibly only a company like Samsung, which is involved in manufacturing phones, tablets, computers, and TVs would be in a strong position to carry over advances in interfaces and interactivity from other devices to TVs. Or someone like Apple.

The other challenge would be emotional reactions from consumers. When early press about the Xbox One suggested that the system would require the Kinect sensor – which includes stereo cameras and microphones – to always be on, even when the system is not in use, people became very paranoid, and there was a backlash.

It is possible that TVs will evolve in coming years to become a sort of all-in-one computer, with web connection, innovative web browsing methods (the concept of adaptive web design will also have to adapt and evolve to cater to TV as a screen), app platforms, and built in SSD memory space, possibly supplemented by cloud storage.

Quite possibly the next stage of the Apple OS – Android – Windows – Linux battles will be fought on the battlefield of internet connected TVs. Ubuntu, for example (A variant of the Linux operating system) has actually been positioning itself as a flexible multiplatform, including TV – OS for some time.

Wireless screen sharing may be the simplest approach, making the smartphone, tablet, or PC the central point of control of what appears on the TV screen. Desktop and laptop computers would have limits though in terms of enabling learning interactions.

Tablets and smartphones, could potentially allow for interesting learning interactions through the accelerometer, gyroscope, and touch sensors.

The scene is probably going to be messy for a few years with a lot of options making it hard for developers to pick. This will make it hard to form development communities that will drive things explosively forward.

Interface and Interactivity

The possibilities for learning and training will depend somewhat on the options available for interactivity. One of the challenges in making the TV a hub for learning content is how the user can control and navigate content sitting or standing from across the room. Good eLearning and online training especially requires rich interactions.

But how do you interface with the TV? A computer you sit right there and control it via mouse and keyboard, and to a lesser extent, microphone and camera. A tablet or smartphone you tap it, swipe it,  turn it, talk to it, because again, you’re up close to it and it fits in your hands.

TV is different. You sit back from it, or stand back from it. You’re not going to stand at your TV tapping the screen like those big maps on CNN election night.

There are probably four major options:

  1. Some modification of a traditional TV remote, possibly one with a touchscreen and accelerometer/gyroscope sensors
  2. Some camera and microphone based sensor like the MS Kinect that lets you control via voice and body gesture
  3. Controlling through a laptop computer, tablet, or smartphone, which shares the screen wirelessly via WiDi, Miracast, or Apple Airplay and lets you control things via touchscreen and motion sensors. The TV simply becomes a screen to mirror content on the other device.
  4. A smartphone or tablet is paired with the TV via an app, and serves as a WiFi-connected touch- and motion-based controller.

All of these could probably be made to work, though options 2 and 4 are probably the most plausible options going forward in terms of usability and in terms of building on existing platforms.

 

Learning and Training Possibilities

The matter then becomes how to harness this emerging new portal to the internet for learning an training.

A few possibilities come to mind.

  • Any passive consumption of video content. Particularly content in HD or stereoscopic 3D format. YouTube contet, for example. A TV would be the most natural and comfortable way to watch. Everything becomes bigger and more lifelike
  • Educational gaming activities using a gaming controller
  • Web content browsing with voice and gesture inputs enabled by something like the Kinect. Say, for example, a view of different documents or different levels of detail making use of different focal planes in a 3D field of view. This allows information and screen elements to be arranged not just along dimensions of horizontal and vertical, but by depth as well.
  • Interaction with stereoscopic 3D models using Kinect sensor. Such as chemical structures, architectural structures, geographic feature models of an area, or components of equipment.
  • Live, synschronous, life-like teleconferencing via TVs and Kinect sensors using apps like Skype or something like it embedded in a virtual classroom application. Virtual classroom would work very well on an HD television with connected camera and microphone. For live, face to face communications, for conversational practice in language learning, or a live virtual tutoring session.
  • Using the Kinect, the learner practices some psychomotor skill. At the same time, the Kinect camera lets a remote instructor watch the performance and comment. The Kinect could also capture data to assist in analyzing biomechanics.

These are a few sample ideas. Maybe readers can think of others.

 Conclusion

The past six years have seen dramatic changes with the coming into the mainstream of mobile devices as a new space for online learning, with unique affordances for interactivity. The mobile web and mLearning have expanded our horizons for entertainment and learning. The television, connected to the internet offers a new field on which we can ply our craft as designers and developers. It’s a developing field with a lot of options that will take some time to sort out and settle down. But for those of us tasked with helping our clients and students to learn and develop, it’s a field we would do well not to ignore.


 

Once again, feel free to share your comments, either below, or via social media.

Encouraging worker engagement and ongoing professional development with mLearning and Gamification

Introduction

I have a confession. I fiddle with my phone at work. We all do this from time, throughout the day, when we’re bored, or our brain is mush, when we’re stuck/blocked, or just when we need a change of pace or break. It’s compulsive (damn you variable ratio schedule of reinforcement!)

The companies we work for don’t tend to like this so much (something about productivity), which is why most of us try to keep it to a dull roar. Many companies have de jure HR policies technically prohibiting such a thing. It’s mostly unenforced, though, because most people are responsible, and because, really, who cares so long as objectives are being met. (Also, front line managers are usually just as glued to their phone screens!)

But what if instead of fighting this tendency, companies were smart about it?

I know. Crazy talk, this. But bear with me.

What if companies and their management embraced that workers mostly have smartphones, and simply accepted as a given that they are going to take them out during the day and use them? What if, taking this as a given, they looked at ways to make lemonade out of lemons, and found a way to harness this natural behavior of employees and channel it toward ends useful to the company and to the worker as an employee?

Mobile phones present an excellent opportunity for companies to help encourage engagement at work and ongoing professional development. The concept presented here is a novel idea for encouraging worker engagement and promoting ongoing professional development in an organization through a combination of mLearning and gamification.

Technological component of solution

Informal learning through short mLearning modules

Workers have phones and use them during the day. The company has new policies and procedures it wants the workers to learn, and also wants to have a workforce committed to ongoing personal and professional development. The company wants workers that are always learning and developing their skills. Combine these two elements and make the worker’s smartphone a platform for employee training and development.

Build continuing professional development materials in small mLearning modules, targetting a length of 2-5 minutes. Design these as informal learning pieces. Include both typical didactic learning elements, but also fun, hands-on activities and games.

Design the modules as stand-alone learning moments that don’t depend too much on other learning pieces, sort of like the late 1990s/early 2000s idea of “Learning Objects.” Design the modules with a “mobile-first” approach, such that they are intended to be seen on mobile phones and look good / are easy to use there. Ensure that the modules are meta-tagged according to some logical schema / ontology of tags appropriate to the workplace or industry so that the modules are easily searchable and findable. Make the learning modules available on some TinCan API /xAPI enabled LMS,

Ensure that there is an interface for searching for and browsing modules that is easy and time-efficient for users to use on a smart phone.

Link it to HR

Track the modules taken by learners and their scores on any assessments or pass/fail. Send this data to HR data systems for tracking.

Link back HR systems the other way so that HR systems could recommend specific modules based on learner time available and on defined professional development objectives.

Allow the system to send suggestions based on most viewed content, most uprated content, and the types of content the learner has enjoyed in the past. Enable a rating system, where learners can provide as much evaluation data as they like. Either “smiley face” basic impressions data or more in depth questionnaire/short survey or both.

Within HR systems, take the data on module completion and track this compared to documented development objectives. For mandated training coming from HR, have subscribed modules or module clusters. This content would be suggested or pushed out from HR. Use notifications, either in app notifications or via text/IM/Lync.

Gamify

Have a gamification layer to encourage and reinforce engagement with the system, though be careful to keep it within reason so that learners don’t feel “gamed.” Keep a tally of hours spent, courses completed, skills learned. Use gamified elements like badges and leader boards. Give the learners incentives to keep engaging with it. Track some of these stats through HR to have data on how much the employee is engaging in learning activities.

Make it social

Allow users to rate content, whether with a simple upvote/downvote or with a five star system. Allow them the opportunity to make comments. When a user is browsing modules, make information on average ratings or upvotes/downvotes visible to learners to help them with their choice. This gives feedback to designers/developers and also helps to identify quality content for other learners. This data gives a good sense of what sort of content the learners want and like, and this can be helpful for training development teams as a guide for how to allocate resources for future development.

Also, allow workers to recommend or share content they like to others. This will allow workers to help you promote good content and will further encourage engagement with the system.

Help learners get access

Make Wifi readily available to employees without restrictions. Employees are not going to really engage with this if you’re going to make them use their own data plan. You provide wired internet access to employees as a tool of work; do the same with in-building Wifi.

Human system component of solution

As with any human systems intervention, however, technology alone will not do the trick.

Workers need to be openly encouraged to use the system at work. As this is rolled out, the teams responsible need to make a concerted effort to promote this training system, both initially and as an ongoing reinforcement. This has to be more than a mass email to “Employees: All.” A nice promitional video will be helpful, but workers need to get introduced to it as well in a face to face meeting involving their front line management and perhaps their director. Give people a chance to ask questions and get answers.

“Bored? Brain-fried? Need a break? Tired? Stuck/writers block? Switch gears for a few minutes, play with your phone, so long as you’re using it to learn something.” Everyone should be actively encouraged to do this, and made to feel comfortable taking advantage of the policy.

Management at all levels, from the top down, needs to sets an example of welcoming this. Both in terms of words and in terms of concrete behavior. Management have to also be encouraged to (within reason) use the system and be seen using the system.

The tracked data that HR collects about how many hours the workers are engaged in learning what they are learning, and their completion stats can add to or supplement performance data for annual/semi-annual review. Workers should have visibility via some dashboard of the same sort of data that HR has summarizing their learning and training activities. That way, the worker can go into performance review meetings armed with data to demonstrate commitment to new learning and skill development. The learner can use this to start conversations about raises or about getting more resources or support for further deeper training or broadening of tasks. Conversely, managers can also look at the data to start their own conversations.

Conclusion

Workers have smartphones. Workers are going to look at them during the work day. If companies are smart and tech savvy, they can encourage ongoing training and development if they put out learning content in a way that is tailored to viewing through the workers’ smart phones. The effectiveness of this is reinforced if the company includes sucessful elements of gamification and social media and backs up the project with support from HR and management.

Concept: Promoting persistence with exercise equipment through video gaming

Introduction

Fitness is a big business.

In the US, for example, as of 2009:

  • Health clubs: $20 billion a year, 45 million memberships.
  • Consumer fitness equipment: 3.2 billion

At the same time, there is a lot of concern about public health from diseases related to obesity and lack of exercise.

People spend a lot of money in particular on home exercise equipment. Devices like treadmills, rowing machines, elliptical trainers, and exercise bikes. But people don’t tend to stick with it. The initial motivation comes, but the motivation often doesn’t persist. A common story is that families will buy these for Christmas as part of some intended New Year’s Resolution. More often than not, the box is opened, it’s set up in the basement, it’s actively used for a few weeks or months, and then it’s forgotten about again.

What can be done to help this? Is there a solution to this performance gap?

Gaming and Motivation

One area that excels in creating and then sustaining motivation (persistence) and intensity of engagement is video games. People will spend hours and hours on games, sometimes to the degree of forgoing food, sleep, other activities, and human contact. Games achieve this with a range of different mechanisms: fun and variety, a mix of long term, middle term, and short term goals (game completion, boss or world completion, and minor task or level completion),  continuous informational feedback and rewards in the form of scores and achievements, competition with other gamers, and social communication tools to allow discussion of game strategies and mutual social based motivation.

Could this power of video games be harnessed to encourage people to make more frequent and more effective use of their home exercise machines? Namely through fitness based games that make use of and incorporate the use of the exercise machines?

A solution: fitness based games using the equipment

Fitness based games are something that already exist. There are a number of titles for Wii, Xbox 360 with Kinect / Xbox One, and PS3/PS4. Often, these will make use of the motion based controllers. For the Wii and PS, this involves a handheld motion controller, while for the Xbox with Kinect, this involves simply moving in front of a sensor that captures body movement. The problem with these is that they just involve you moving or jumping around in your living room. There is not a lot of space. This works for people that like yoga and aerobics, but not so much for people that like to bike or run.

As far as I am aware, there aren’t any titles that make use of home exercise equipment. This is, in my mind, a gap just waiting to be filled. Microsoft, the manufacturer of the Xbox, would be in a nice position for this because their Kinect controller doesn’t require you to hold something in your hand to use it.

Microsoft could partner with the exercise equipment manufacturers to build free to download Xbox One game apps that make use of the Kinect sensor and the use of the equipment as part of fun, engaging games.

For example, a biking race game where you control the game, through the Kinect, by pedaling the exercise bike, and there’s nice HD scenery as you go along the race course, any one you like. Mountains, beside the ocean, beside a river. Ort famous race courses like the Tour du France. Ideally displaying in stereo 3D. You could have a training mode and a racing mode, which could offer either a short track race or a longer road race.

Or a running game / road race trainer game tied to major treadmill models. Go for a run by yourself or in some chosen scenery, either in nature or in some city. When you want to test yourself, you play a race mode that puts you in a famous road race course like a big, renowned 10k or the New York or Boston Marathon. Again, 3D rendered and ideally displaying in stereo 3D.

Or for the elliptical, it could be cross-country skiing.

Or a rowing game using a home rowing machine with well known scenes or race scenarios. For example, a game scenario where you train with the Harvard or Cambridge crew, row on an Olympic course, or relive some big race on the Seine in Paris from the early 20th century.

Make sure there’s an interactive display layer menu the user can access for exercise and training analytics. Also with some sort of virtual coaching, maybe something using interactive avatars. In addition, ideally a social network layer to share “achievements” or get encouragement from friends that are also on an exercise program. A space for monitoring vitals like heart rate over time and tools to manage diet and nutrition and suggest meals would also be useful.

Ideally, Microsoft would want to have someone working with the equipment designers and manufacturers to incorporate wifi connections or Bluetooth in the equipment so that the Xbox game, via the Xbox software, can wirelessly control the exercise equipment within some manufacturer and user set safety tolerances. Also, the other way, so that the equipment can wirelessly send the current setting to the game. So, for example, if you’re playing your running game, and you’re on the last kilometer of a 5 k race, and you want to sprint for a PB or to catch someone, and the software calculates that you’re not over-exerting for your age and fitness level, the system raises the speed of the treadmill automatically to match your attempt to go faster. Or for the bike or treadmill to automatically adjust the inclination when the game gets to a hill on a training or race course.

It would also be good for the games to be multiplayer, ideally multiplayer over the internet. Then people could go on at the same time and race each other on their equipment over the Internet. This could help additionally with social based motivation.

With the right gamified elements and incentives and feedback, you could help people make more effective use of fitness equipment in their lives, help them persist at it, and get fitter. The machines would be better used, and health outcomes could be improved over the longer term.

I could even see a nice marketing strategy for Microsoft for the Christmas holiday season. Make a joint marketing arrangement with the major home fitness manufacturers and TV manufactures and the electronics and home appliance stores.

Arrange to set up displays in store. Have the exercise equipment set up facing the biggest TV screen in the store, with the TV hooked up to the Xbox One at an appropriate distance from the exercise equipment and with a well positioned Kinect hooked up to the Xbox. Have some game running in multiplayer mode. People could try it out and have a little low intensity friendly competition right there in the store. And by juxtaposing the Xbox One, the TV, and exercise equipment in a way that shows them working together, you might well increase the sales of all three, benefitting the manufacturers of the devices and the store that sells them. Everyone wins.

Further Reading

http://mobihealthnews.com/22628/xbox-one-kinect-2-0-and-the-future-of-health-technology/

http://www.ciaomom.com/getting-fit-with-nike-kinect-training/